The twentieth century saw religion challenged by the rise of science and secularism, a confrontation which resulted in an astonishingly diverse range of philosophical views about religion and religious belief. Many of the major philosophers of the twentieth century – James, Bergson, Russell, Wittgenstein, Ayer, Heidegger, and Derrida – examined religious thinking. Leading theologians and religious philosophers – notably Buber, Tillich and Barth – directly engaged with the philosophy of religion. Idiosyncratic thinkers, such as Whitehead, Levinas and Weil, further contributed to the diversity of philosophical investigation of religion across the century. Later, led by the work of Hick, Alston, Plantinga, and Swinburne, philosophy of religion became a distinct field of study. Twentieth-Century Philosophy of Religion will be an indispensable resource for anyone interested in contemporary philosophy of religion.